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Wednesday, July 20, 2005
 
NBA Players That Get In Trouble With the Law: Do Age and Education Level Matter?

Among the claims often expressed for raising the age floor in the NBA is that prep-to-pros players are more likely to get in off-court trouble, since they lack a college education and, as David Stern puts it, "life experience." One way to test this idea is to study NBA players that have actually gotten in trouble with the law. Were they college educated? Were they young and impressionable? I did a little bit of research, and while I cannot ensure that the following chart reflects a complete list, it is quite extensive and likely covers most of the recent NBA player arrests. The chart reveals the arrested players’ level of education and their age and level of professional experience at the time of arrest. Disclaimer: obviously, an arrest does not mean that someone is guilty of anything; that’s what a trial is for. But, it might a good proxy for “getting in trouble with the law,” particularly given the reputational cost often absorbed by an arrested player, his team, and the NBA.

Arrested NBA Players: Education, Age, and Experience
Michael McCann
Assistant Professor of Law, Mississippi College School of Law
LL.M., Harvard Law School (2005)
J.D., University of Virginia School of Law (2002)
B.A., Georgetown University (1998)


NAME

CHARGE

EDUCATION

AGE WHEN ARRESTED

SEASON IN NBA WHEN ARRESTED

Greg “Cadillac” Anderson

Possession of Cocaine and Intent to Distribute

4 Years of College

33

10th

Gilbert Arenas

Unlawful Possession of Firearm

2 Years of College

21

3rd

Darrell Armstrong

Battery of Female Police Officer

4 Years of College

35

10th

Ron Artest

Assault and Battery

2 Years of College

25

6th

Charles Barkley

Disorderly Conduct

4 Years of College

28

8th

Erick Barkley

Trespass

4 Years of College

23

2nd

Tony Battie

Battery of Police Officer

3 Years of College

23

2nd

Mookie Blaylock

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

30

7th

Kobe Bryant

Sexual Assault

0 Years of College

24

7th

Rodney Buford

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

22

1st

Jason Caffey

Assault Causing Bodily Harm

4 Years of College

30

8th

Marcus Camby

Marijuana Possession

3 Years of College

23

2nd

Sam Cassell

Assault Causing Bodily Harm

4 Years of College

33

11th

Keon Clark

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

27

5th

Derrick Coleman

Driving While Under the Influence

4 Years of College

35

13th

Tony Dumas

Assault on Pregnant Woman

4 Years of College

23

2nd

Richard Dumas

Crack Cocaine Possession

3 Years of College

29

3rd (was retired)

Dale Ellis (1)

Domestic-Violence Assault and Resisting Arrest

4 Years of College

29

7th

Dale Ellis (2)

Domestic-Violence Assault

4 Years of College

41

17th (was retired)

Marcus Fizer

Unlawful Possession of Firearm

3 Years of College

24

3rd

Joe Forte (1)

Marijuana Possession and Unlawful Possession of Firearm

2 Years of College

23

2nd

Joe Forte (2)

Driving While Under the Influence

2 Years of College

23

2nd

Steve Francis

Driving While Under the Influence

3 Years of College

23

3rd

Gary Grant (1)

Assault, Battery, and Disorderly Conduct

4 Years of College

35

12th

Gary Grant (2)

Drunk Driving

4 Years of College

36

13th

Eddie Griffin (1)

Marijuana Possession

1 Year of College

21

3rd

Eddie Griffin (2)

Assault with a Deadly Weapon

1 Year of College

21

3rd

Ed Gray

Marijuana Possession and Driving Under the Influence

4 Years of College

24

2nd

Darvin Ham

Battery of Wife

3 Years of College

28

5th

David Harrison

Assault and Battery

3 Years of College

22

1st

Alan Henderson

Unlawful Possession of Firearm

4 Years of College

32

11th

Dennis Hopson

Domestic Violence

4 Years of College

35

5th (was retired)

Zydrunas Illgauskas

Drunk Driving

NA (European Pro till age 22)

27

5th

Allen Iverson (1)

Marijuana Possession and Unlawful Possession of Firearm

2 Years of College

22

2nd

Allen Iverson (2)

Assault

2 Years of College

27

7th

Stephen Jackson

Assault and Battery

1 Year of College

26

5th

Anthony Johnson

Assault and Battery

4 Years of College

30

8th

Dennis Johnson

Assault and Battery

4 Years of College

43

14th (was retired)

Shawn Kemp

Drug Possession and Unlawful Possession of Firearm

1 Year of College

35

14th (was retired)

Jason Kidd

Domestic Abuse

2 Years of College

27

7th

Voshon Lenard

Reckless Endangerment and Illegal Use of Firearm

4 Years of College

27

6th

Brad Lohaus

Domestic Assault and Felony Theft

4 Years of College

40

11th (was retired)

Sam Mack

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

29

6th

Anthony Mason

Battery on Police Officer

4 Years of College

33

10th

Vernon Maxwell (1)

Unlawful Possession of Firearm

4 Years of College

29

7th

Vernon Maxwell (2)

Drug Possession

4 Years of College

30

8th

Vernon Maxwell (3)

Failing to Pay Child Support

4 Years of College

34

12th

Roshown McLeod

Battery of Pregnant Woman

4 Years of College

24

2nd

Terrance Morris

Driving with a Suspended License

4 Years of College

23

1st

Lee Nailon

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

25

1st

Tyrone Nesby

Battery

4 Years of College

26

4th

Michael Olowokandi (1)

Cohabitant Abuse, Robbery, and False Imprisonment

3 Years of College

26

4th

Michael Olowokandi (2)

Disorderly Conduct and Trespass

3 Years of College

29

7th

Jermaine O’Neal

Assault and Battery

0 Years of College

26

9th

Chris Porter

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

23

1st

Vitaly Potapenko

Disorderly Conduct

2 Years of College

24

4th

Robert Parrish

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

38

21st (was retired)

Ruben Patterson (1)

Assault

4 Years of College

25

2nd

Ruben Patterson (2)

Attempted Rape

4 Years of College

26

3rd

Ruben Patterson (3)

Assault of Spouse

4 Years of College

28

5th

Gary Payton

Driving While Under the Influence

4 Years of College

36

15th

Scottie Pippen

Battery of Woman

4 Years of College

29

8th

Olden Polynice (1)

Assault

3 Years of College

32

10th

Olden Polynice (2)

Impersonating a Police Officer and Disorderly Conduct

3 Years of College

36

13th

Olden Polynice (3)

Assault

3 Years of College

37

14th

Zach Randolph

Driving While Under the Influence

1 Year of College

22

3rd

Eldrige Recasner

Assault

4 Years of College

32

6th

Jason Richardson

Domestic Violence

2 Years of College

22

2nd

Isaiah “JR” Rider

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

25

4th

Cliff Robinson (1)

Marijuana Possession

3 Years of College

31

9th

Cliff Robinson (2)

Marijuana Possession

3 Years of College

34

12th

Glenn Robinson (1)

Disorderly Intoxication

3 Years of College

27

6th

Glenn Robinson (2)

Battery and Unlawful Possession of Firearm

3 Years of College

29

8th

Dennis Rodman (1)

Battery

4 Years of College

38

14th

Dennis Rodman (2)

Obstruction of Justice

4 Years of College

41

14th (was retired)

Dwayne Schintzius

Driving While Under the Influence

4 Years of College

35

8th (was retired)

Charles Smith

Vehicular Homicide and Driving Under the Influence

4 Years of College

23

2nd

Leon Smith

Criminal Mischief

0 Years of College

19

1st

Michael Smith

Assault and Drunk Driving

4 Years of College

29

8th

Latrell Sprewell

Driving With a Suspended License

4 Years of College

32

11th

Jerry Stackhouse

Assault

2 Years of College

28

8th

DeShawn Stevenson

Statutory Rape

0 Years of College

20

2nd

Rod Strickland (1)

Driving While Under the Influence

3 Years of College

31

10th

Rod Strickland (2)

Unlawful Entry

3 Years of College

33

12th

Damon Stoudamire

Marijuana Possession

4 Years of College

29

8th

Sedale Threatt

Failing to Pay Child Support

4 Years of College

38

14th (was retired)

Kurt Thomas

Assault of Spouse

4 Years of College

29

7th

Robert Traylor

Receiving and Concealing Stolen Property

3 Years of College

23

3rd

Gary Trent

Assault

3 Years of College

22

2nd

John Wallace

Harassment

4 Years of College

23

2nd

Rasheed Wallace

Marijuana Possession

2 Years of College

28

8th

Samaki Walker

Drunk Driving

2 Years of College

27

8th

Chris Webber

Marijuana Possession and Resisting Arrest

2 Years of College

25

6th

Bonzi Wells

Trespass

4 Years of College

25

4th

David Wesley

Reckless Driving

4 Years of College

29

7th

Chris Wilcox

Unlawful Possession of Firearm

2 Years of College

22

3rd

Jason Williams

Reckless Driving

4 Years of College

25

3rd

Jayson Williams

Reckless Manslaughter

4 Years of College

34

9th (was retired)

Sly Williams

Kidnapping, Rape, Sodomy, and Burglary

4 Years of College

44

7th (was retired)

Qyntel Woods (1)

Marijuana Possession

3 Years of College^

22

1st

Qyntel Woods (2)

Animal Cruelty

3 Years of College^

23

3rd

AVERAGE (all)

NA

3.2 Years of College

28.2 Years Old

6.4th Season

MEDIAN (all)

NA

4.0 Years of College

27.0 Years Old

6.0th Season

AVERAGE (without retired)

NA

3.1 Years of College

26.9 Years Old

5.6th Season

MEDIAN (without retired)

NA

4.0 Years of College

26.2 Years Old

5.3rd Season

84 Arrested NBA Players

* 48 w/4 college years

* 15 w/3 college years

* 12 w/2 college years

* 4 w/1 college year

* 4 w/0 college years

* 1 international player

All NBA Players:

41.1% went to college for 4 years

Arrested NBA Players:

57.1% went to college for 4 years

Meaning:

NBA Players with 4 years of college represent a proportionally higher % of arrested NBA players than all NBA players.

All NBA Players:

20.9% went to college for 3 years

Arrested NBA Players:

17.9% went to college for 3 years

Meaning:

NBA Players with 3 years of college represent a proportionally lower % of arrested NBA players than all NBA players.

All NBA Players:

11.1% went to college for 2 years

Arrested NBA Players:

14.3% went to college for 2 years

Meaning:

NBA Players with 2 years of college represent a proportionally higher % of arrested NBA players than all NBA players.

All NBA Players:

6.5% went to college for 1 year

Arrested NBA Players:

4.8% went to college for 1 year

Meaning:

NBA Players with 1 year of college represent a proportionally lower % of arrested NBA players than all NBA players.

All NBA Players:

8.3% did not go to college (American)

Arrested NBA Players:

4.8% did not go to college (American)

Meaning:

NBA Players who didn’t go to college and are American represent a proportionally lower % of arrested NBA players than all NBA players.

All NBA Players:

12.2% are international

Arrested NBA Players:

1.2% are international

Meaning:

International NBA players represent a proportionally lower % of arrested NBA players than all NBA players.


Update 8/9/05
: Dwight Jaynes of the Portland Tribune published an excellent column today concerning this study. (Jaynes, "Stern Has it Exactly Backward on College," Portland Tribune, August 9, 2005).

Update 7/28/05
: I added an education-level comparison of arrested NBA players to all current NBA players. There are some rather striking results that appear to amplify the study's findings. Most notably, although 41.1 percent of all NBA players went to college for 4 years, 57.1 percent of arrested NBA players went to college for 4 years--meaning that players with four years of college represent a proportionally higher percentage of arrested NBA players than all NBA players. In contrast, although 14.8 percent of NBA players either did not go to college or went for one year, only 9.6 percent of arrested NBA players share the same educational background--meaning that players with one or less years of college represent a proportionally lower percentage of arrested NBA players than all NBA players. Also, a continued thanks to the those who have analyzed this study by e-mail or on their blogs (including Professor Mark Godsey of the University of Cincinnati College of Law and Criminal Professor Blog).

Update 7/25/05: I added statistics for the averages and medians of only those players who were arrested while still playing in the NBA (denoted as "without retired").

^ Woods played two years of junior college plus one year of community college.

The averages and medians only count a player once, with the number averaged (e.g., even though he had three arrests, Vernon Maxwell’s education and age are only counted once as an average—4 years of college, 31 years old, and 9th NBA season)
.

Also, several of the players were arrested after their careers had ended, and that is noted by “was retired.” I used the last year in which they played as the numerical base. One could make a good argument that they should not be included, although I felt that their arrests still reflected poorly on them, their NBA teams, and the NBA itself (e.g., the Jayson Williams murder trial), and thus deserved to be included.

What does this data tell us?

First, college education does not appear to diminish the probability of a player getting in trouble with the law. In fact, some of the most notorious NBA players are those with college degrees, while many others have three years of a college education. That is not to say that a college education is a “bad thing,” but it does undermine the popular and paternalistic argument that “these kids need more schooling” because otherwise they would somehow be less-prepared for life as an NBA player. Just the opposite, actually, the data suggests that premiere high school seniors might be better off skipping college altogether, perhaps in order to avoid the disturbing external influences that afflict many college basketball programs, or perhaps because the average Division I college basketball player spends 40-50 hours a week playing games, practicing, attending team meetings, working out, and traveling – an arrangement that does not leave much time for “education” or “the college experience,” and that is a problem only worsened by most players having minimal financial resources (which, consequently, can instill a greater temptation on their part to be influenced by those who hang around the team and who always have plenty of money in hand).

On the other hand, the lack correlative power of education might only reflect intervening causes (such as personal and professional relationships) that can obscure the lessons one learned in school (or at home or with friends etc.). In that respect, I found some of the media coverage of the Kobe Bryant sexual assault case especially baffling. Here was a player who was considered the NBA's poster child for most of his first seven seasons, during which time he was routinely praised for his charity work with the Los Angeles Girls and Boys' Club, and then, at age 24, we are supposed to believe that he suddenly became a rapist because he didn't go to college seven years earlier?

Second, players appear more likely to get in trouble with the law towards the middle and end of their careers than at the start. This could be interpreted in a number of ways. For instance, it might suggest that the “pressures of being an NBA player” are more manageable at the start of one’s career, perhaps because the player is less autonomous and more reliant on the team. This interpretation is bolstered by the financial stake of NBA teams in facilitating the transition of their players from life as an amateur to life as a pro. Second, and related to the preceding interpretation, new NBA players are often surrounded by veterans in their late 20s and 30s who can monitor them and serve as de facto “big brothers.” The presence of these veteran players is obviously something distinct from the college experience, where the “veterans” are often just 20 or 21-years old, and are thus not likely to be as well-equipped in steering their 18 and 19-year teammates away from nefarious influences. Alternatively, the data may suggest that as the player accumulates wealth and notoriety, he is more likely to succumb to these “pressures.”

No matter the interpretation, it doesn’t appear that the recent decision by the NBA and NBPA to raise the age of NBA draft eligibility from 18 to 19 (or one year out of high school) will improve the overall law-abidingness of NBA players. If anything, actually, this data suggests that it might have the opposite effect.

I look forward to further analyzing this data with all of you. Your insight and interpretation would be much appreciated, and please use the comments section below. Or, if you have any additions/corrections to the list, please e-mail me (along with some type of substantiation for your claim) at mmccann@law.harvard.edu – I would appreciate it.

Reactions to this Study

I am grateful to all who have e-mailed me, as well as to those who have commented below or who have written about this study on their websites and blogs. Along those lines, thanks to Henry Abbot of True Hoop for his discussion. I especially liked his title, "The List David Stern Never Wants You to See." Thanks also to following for their discussion of the study: Jeffrey Lewis of The Southern California Law Blog, Jeffrey Wojciechowski of Beaneball, Ken Lammers of Criminal Law Blog, Mike of Crime and Federalism, Scott Townsend of H-Town Sports, Kevin of Hoop Log, and Cisco of Filsteu.

Also, Professor Todd Zywicki of George Mason University School of Law and The Volokh Conspiracy has a must-read take on this study, as he predicts that "raising the draft age by one year will likely just increase the corruption in high school and college basketball." Definitely check out his post, as it reflects upon this data in a completely different way: the unintended consequences on amateur basketball. The Sports Prof ("Rap Sheets and the Rap Generation") and Cal Lanier of Football Fans for Truth ("Fools Rule") also check in with excellent responses.

Additional Resources

For further discussion of this study's relevance to the NBA's efforts to raise the age floor, see my 5/23/05 post "More on NBA Player Arrests and Age/Education." For a broader discussion of age and the NBA Draft, see my law review article "Illegal Defense: The Irrational Economics of Banning High School Players from the NBA Draft," 3 Virginia Sports and Entertainment Law Journal113 (2004)" and my 6/28/05 post "The Red Herring of Age in the NBA Draft."






27 Comments:

I believe that your data set is small, but I agree that any way you slice it, age doesn't appear to have much relation to "getting into trouble" for an NBA player. It would be interesting to collect some other parameters such as in season vs off season, or playing status (injured, etc.) or even contract status, to see if there is a particularly vulnerable time for getting into trouble.

Anonymous Marco -- 3/11/2006 3:13 PM  


Just out of curiousity--if you did a similar list of NFL players, would O.J. Simpson's murder case list him as a player or as a member of the media? He had worked for a number of years with NBC Sports [on the NFL and Olympics] prior to the double murders, and been out of the NFL for about 13 years at the time.

Come to think of it--shouldn't Jayson Williams' arrest (that is the former Nets' forward) be on a list of media people arrested, as he was the studio analyst for NBC Sports at the time of his arrest?

Anonymous Melvin H. -- 3/11/2006 3:14 PM  


Very interesting findings Professor McCann. Your last update is especially interesting, because the comparative data between arrested NBA players and all NBA players greatly discredits the NBA's paternalistic argument for an age floor. As a fellow Harvard Law grad, I'm happy to see this kind of scholarship from our alma mater.

Anonymous Stephen Prosser -- 3/11/2006 3:15 PM  


There are other factors that should be taken in consideration here, perhaps. The environment the players grew up in, for one. Kobe might end up standing out in this list not because he skipped college, but because he was raised in a well-to-do family in a list of people who had rough beginnings (note that I'm taking a guess here, I don't know enough about all the background of all the players listed).

Anonymous Cisco -- 3/11/2006 3:43 PM  


Zach Randolph's arrest was not a DUI. It was for underage drinking for drinking a beer 2 weeks before his 21st birthday.

LT

Anonymous Laurel -- 3/11/2006 3:44 PM  


Laurel: Thanks for your response. However, according to a December 2, 2003 story entitled "Blazers' Randolph Arrested for Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants" on the Portland Oregonian's website, Zach Randolph was indeed arrested for DUI. Here is the link:

http://www.oregonlive.com/printer/printer.ssf?
/blazers/120203randolph.frame

Blogger Michael McCann -- 3/11/2006 3:50 PM  


Most of HS-only sample has probably not yet reached their 6th season in the league. They simply haven't had as much time as the rest of the league to get arrested.

Please analyze this data within birth year cohort and draft year cohort. To support your claims, one must show that secondary education is positively correlated with arrests within each birth year or draft year cohort. For example, within the 2003 draft class, is the number of years of college education positively or negatively correlated with being arrested?

My guess is that your data set will not provide the statistical power to make a valid comparison. I don't think there are enough data points from the HS-only set to run a meaningful analysis.

I would love to see survey data on the average unaided recall for each draft class over the past 20 years, and the average mpg, ppg, rpg, and pts/rbs per 48 min stats by education level for 1st round draft picks in the past 25 years. I bet we'd see that HS-only plays have a very wide distribution for these measurements, and lower averages, compared to players with some college experience.

My guess is that owners are tired of paying NBA salaries to people who have not developed a national repuation in the NCAA and are typically too raw to contribute in their first few years in the league. The league has probably decided that, statistically speaking, gambling on HS players in the draft does not pay off frequently enough to justify the increased costs required to market and develop them. This would be a perfectly reasonable business justification to change the CBA.

Anonymous Josh Loftus -- 3/11/2006 3:52 PM  


I find this study very interesting. I run a fantasy sports web site ( www.fantasycriminal.com )that awards points when a member of your team gets arrested. I have over three years of NBA busts in my database. All the busts have a link to a legitimate news story ( that is one of the rules ). We have over 3000 busts so far. I may be able to help you with some of your research ...

Anonymous James Lanter -- 3/11/2006 4:09 PM  


Incredibly fascinating read, and outstanding research. And not good news for David Stern!

Anonymous Anonymous -- 3/11/2006 4:10 PM  


the data looks great and all, and I must first say that you have a valid point. But, what percentage of the NBA went to school for 4, 3, 2, 1, or 0 years would help analyze the data better. I am not calling your claim incorrect, but I am saying that this is not enough data.

Blogger Brett -- 6/05/2006 3:18 PM  


Brett,

Thanks for your comment. The information that you are asking about is provided under the lines for "All NBA players" in each category (41.1% of all NBA players went to college for 4 years; 20.9% for 3 years; 11.1% for 2 years; 6.5% for 1 year; 8.3% jumped from high school to the NBA; and 12.2% are international players).

Blogger Michael McCann -- 6/11/2006 2:34 PM  


Is there a similiar list of NFL players?

Anonymous Anonymous -- 9/11/2006 1:09 AM  


What is the time frame used for the data? It would be difficult to confirm if a 'recent' arrest was missed without at least a start date. Also, several people seemed interested incomparing this list to other sports. The number of arrests sport to sport can't be compared without knowing if this covers five years, ten years, etc.

Anonymous Ted -- 10/05/2006 8:22 AM  


Very interesting stuff. However, I ran over the data and found that the average age of (first) arrest for players completing less than 4 years of college was about 25 years old while the average age for those completing 4 years was about 30 years old. So the players not completing college get into trouble a little earlier than those who do complete college. These stats are obviously kind of biased becuase leaving college early (or not going at all) is a rather new trend, so guys like Kobe and Jason Richardson haven't had a chance to reach 35 to get arrested just yet.

Anonymous Ben -- 11/08/2006 7:43 PM  


this i bull shit, 50% of nba players chief. "smoke weed"

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Anonymous Anonymous -- 5/14/2008 4:03 PM  


The league has probably decided that, statistically speaking, gambling on HS players in the draft does not pay off frequently enough to justify the increased costs required to market and develop them. This would be a perfectly reasonable business justification to change the CBA.

Thanks for posting this topic.
===============================
Andrew William

california dui

Blogger andrew123 -- 9/15/2008 8:20 PM  


I think a one game suspension of Horry would have been tolerable. But you cannot seriously believe that suspending Diaw and Amare is how it should have gone down. Get real. Since when do we follow the letter of the law over the intent? Cops give warnings for traffic violations. Judges consider intent not just the letter of the law for punishment. Why can’t the league think? Stern wants to tell players what they can or cannot wear and say and acts like a contemporary slave master ruling over his “boys”. It has to stop!
-----------------------
Muthu

Dui In California

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Anonymous Anonymous -- 1/19/2009 9:44 AM  


your little stats was interesting, but I hope yourself or your readers dont equate years in college with actual education or intelligence. I attended 3 collegs while getting my degrees and also taught at 2 colleges. For the record black basketball players in 3 New York colleges never attended classes period and instructors were told to give these absent students passing grades! No shit

Anonymous Anonymous -- 2/02/2009 1:07 PM  


Mike,

This study ignored a key component. This references when they were arrested after turning pro without any mention of legal troubles prior to turning pro. Many of those names had issues while in college or even earlier.

Plus, the issue is not limited to they are more ready to handle the grind of the NBA with college seasoning, there are other factors. That is one factor. A more underlying and less referenced theory is effect on the salary cap and the veterans with younger players around. Allowing younger players into the NBA would end up forcing the NBA to actually create a true minor league system. 1st rounders get guaranteed contracts that can severely hinder a team that predicts wrong. Another major factor is the physical development and ability to handle the grind. Yet another factor is that young players are drafted on potential and often flame out. A couple of years of seasoning helps (nnot always enough) to identify some of the flaws.

Anonymous Eric Gordon -- 4/23/2009 10:14 AM  


Holy crap! Why is Eric Gordon (the previous poster) opposed to players leaving school early when he went seventh in the NBA draft last June? He needs to practice what he preaches.

Blogger Brian -- 5/12/2009 11:25 PM  


One stat is missing, how many of these players are black

Anonymous Anonymous -- 5/14/2009 8:04 PM  


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