Sports Law Blog
All things legal relating
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Wednesday, November 27, 2013
Football and limiting rules
In breaking down and defending the infield fly rule, I rely on the concept of limiting rules--special rules designed to recalibrate cost-benefit disparities that appear if some plays are left to the game's ordinary rules. I identify four features that, when present, show the need for limiting rules. I also discuss situations in which the absence of one or more feature shows that a limiting rule is not necessary. In a work-in-progress (hopefully forthcoming), I apply this model to football, focusing on several plays from the last two Super Bowls to consider situations that do or do not call for limiting rules.
But on Slate's Hang Up and Listen Podcast (go to around the 51:00 mark), Josh Levin identifies a play that exposes another hole in the rules that might justify a limiting rule. A defensive team trailing in the final minutes commits a penalty on a play on which the offense had gotten a first down; the penalty stopped the clock, even though the clock would have continued to run without the penalty. In other words, it functionally gave the trailing defensive team a free timeout, forcing the offense to run more plays in order to run out the clock. This, Levin argues, incentivizes teams to intentionally take penalties to stop the clock and give themselves extra, an idea discussed on Football Commentary almost a decade ago. This arose with 2:14 remaining in last Thursday's Saints-Falcons game (the trailing Falcons committed defensive holding on a play) and arguably gave the Falcons a chance to get the ball back one final time (although they did not score) and still lost.
Read more »
Monday, November 25, 2013
NHL Concussion Litigation
Will Leeman et al v. NHL threaten the NHL? My take for SI.com.
Freakonomics and sports rules
The new Freakonomics podcast discusses "spontaneous order," illustrating it with discussion of the rules and enforcement regime of ultimate frisbee, which is played (even competitively) without officials. Fun discussion.
Saturday, November 23, 2013
Update on the San Jose v. MLB Lawsuit
or earlier Sports Law Blog coverage of San Jose's suit and the ongoing dispute regarding the proposed relocation of the Oakland A's, click here.) As Howard Wasserman noted at the time, though, it was unclear whether San Jose could in fact immediately appeal the decision. Because the court's opinion was largely premised on baseball's well-established antitrust exemption, Judge Whyte's decision did not present a "substantial ground for difference of opinion" as required under 28 U.S.C. 1292(b), and as a result it did not appear that San Jose could immediately pursue an interlocutory appeal in the case. Indeed, nearly than a month and a half later the lawsuit is still pending in the Northern District of California.
However, Judge Whyte has signaled that he may be willing to allow the city to appeal the decision shortly. In a hearing scheduled for December 13th, the judge has asked the parties to be prepared to discuss two primary issues: (1) whether the court should retain supplemental jurisdiction of the remaining state law claims in light of the fact that the federal claim in the case was dismissed, and (2) whether a final judgment should be entered with regards to the previously dismissed claims pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 54(b), a provision that allows courts to enter final judgment in a case once some, but not all, of the claims in the suit have been resolved. Under Rule 54(b), the court must determine that there is "no just reason for delay" in entering final judgment for the dismissed claims.
Presumably, San Jose will seek to persuade the court to retain jurisdiction over the remaining state law claims -- so that it can begin to pursue discovery in the case in an attempt to obtain some leverage over MLB -- while at the same time urging Judge Whyte to enter a final judgment on the dismissed claims so that the city can appeal them to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. Meanwhile, MLB will likely contend that the court should not retain supplemental jurisdiction over the remaining state law claims, but instead dismiss them outright. However, should the court opt to retain jurisdiction over the state law claims, I would expect MLB to argue that it should then refrain from issuing a final judgment under Rule 54(b), in hopes of avoiding the prospect of simultaneously litigating the case on two separate tracks.
Assuming the court decides to enter a final judgment -- either under Rule 54(b), or following the dismissal of the remaining state law claims -- San Jose's immediate prospects on appeal do not appear to be particularly strong, given that the Ninth Circuit has previously affirmed the dismissal of a suit raising similar franchise location issues under baseball's antitrust immunity. Portland Baseball Club, Inc. v. Kuhn, 491 F.2d 1101 (9th Cir. 1974). Nevertheless, a pending appeal would continue to give the city some leverage over MLB in any negotiations regarding the A's proposed move to San Jose. Perhaps more importantly, pursuing an immediate appeal would also expedite the city's timetable for a potential Supreme Court appeal. The prospect of the Supreme Court reconsidering baseball's prized antitrust immunity would undoubtedly be a significant cause for concern for MLB, and could finally convince the league to approve the A's relocation.
Friday, November 22, 2013
RIP: Michael Weiner
Weiner, the MLB players' union executive director, took over in December of 2009 following the departure of Donald Fehr. A fierce labor attorney, Weiner displayed the ability to advocate for the players while swiftly earning the respect of the owners, Commissioner Bud Selig and all involved in the business of baseball.
Many of us were lucky enough to have met Michael, serving on a panel at a law school conference or shaking his hand at the annual Sports Law Association's conference. For those of you who didn't have the benefit of meeting or hearing Michael speak, spend some time researching what he accomplished over his all too short tenure with the union. And when first pitch comes around this spring, please don't forget to tip your cap....
Thursday, November 21, 2013
On rules and sport
Great commentary from Neil Buchanan at Dorf on Law on the arbitrary nature of the rules of sport, with a special focus on whether football is still "football" under the new player-safety rules.
American Needle's Lesson for the New Jersey Sports Wagering Case
News broke late last Friday that the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit had denied New Jersey's request for an en banc hearing in the on-going sporting wagering lawsuit. After losing at both the District Court and Court of Appeals level, the state is now down to its last option - the U.S. Supreme Court. Previous statements from the New Jersey side indicated that Gov. Chris Christie is inclined to take the case to the Supreme Court. If so, the state will file a petition for writ of certiorari within the next 90 days. Like all petitions, the chances that the Supreme Court opts to take the case are slim.
If New Jersey does indeed seek review by the Supreme Court, the conventional wisdom is that the sports league plaintiff quintet (NCAA, NBA, NFL, NHL, and MLB) would oppose review by SCOTUS given that the leagues have already prevailed twice earlier. Such opposition could manifest itself in one of two ways: (i) by filing a motion in opposition to New Jersey's petition or (ii) by doing nothing. However, as we learned in the American Needle v. NFL, et al case several years ago, there is a third option - the sports leagues could join New Jersey in seeking review by the Supreme Court.
Recall the American Needle case single entity antitrust case and its procedural history. The NFL and its co-defendants prevailed at both the District Court and Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals before moving to the Supreme Court in 2010. Nevertheless, the NFL decided to request review at the highest level. In relevant part, here is what the league wrote in their pleading -
"The NFL Respondents are taking the unusual step of supporting certiorari in an effort to secure a uniform rule that (i) recognizes the single-entity nature of highly integrated joint ventures and (ii) obviates the uncertainty, chilling effects, and forum shopping that inevitably result from the current conflict among the circuits."
In other words, the NFL desired the Supreme Court to memorialize their earlier court victories. With Minnesota and California promulgating sports betting-related legislation and watching the New Jersey case closely, it is possible that the NCAA-NBA-NFL-NHL-MLB plaintiffs may opt to follow the same appellate strategy now. While the Third Circuit's decision regarding PASPA constitutionality is persuasive nationwide, only a Supreme Court decision would be binding in every circuit.
Instances of a prevailing party seeking further review of a case are exceedingly rare. Nevertheless, given the recent history of it happening in another high-profile case involving one of the same litigants, it is a (remote) possibility worth being aware of.
Thursday, November 14, 2013
University of Chicago 4th Annual Sports Symposium
Fourth Annual Sports Symposium, organized by the School's Media, Entertainment & Sports Group (MESG). Panelists throughout the day will be coming in from the Chicago Bulls, Chicago Fire, Chicago Sky, Cleveland Browns, St. Louis Cardinals, Boston Red Sox, Baltimore Orioles, Gatorade, Intersport, and the Chicago Cubs. Panel topics include: navigating front office management of professional teams, the increasing role of analytics in sport, and the growth of digital marketing.
I will be moderating the legal panel entitled: "The Impact of Increased Litigation in Sports." We anticipate covering a number of topics from the concussion lawsuits to the student-athlete likeness litigation to doping. Our panelists follow:
Tuesday, November 12, 2013
Do Conflict of Interest Rules Prohibit the NFLPA from Representing Both Jonathan Martin and Richie Incognito?
Joseph Kohm, Jr., an attorney and agent at Diakon Baseball Group in Virginia. Kohm represents, among others, Blue Jays All-Star pitcher Steve Delebar. Kohm has also taught sports law at Regent University School of Law and in the late 80s played on Syracuse's men's basketball team. We're pleased to have Joe's contribution. He also authored the Sports Law Blog post titled What if Rick Pitino Had Been A Woman? in 2009. -- Mike McCann
It was interesting to watch NFLPA head DeMaurice Smith tell ESPN’s Stuart Scott before Monday night’s Dolphins-Buccaneers game that the Players Association could adequately represent the interests of both Jonathan Martin and Richie Incognito without a conflict of interest. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell likes to wield the league’s Personal Conduct policy like the sword of Damocles and based on the limited information that has been made public to date, both players could be subject to discipline. Under general labor law principles, it is conceivable that the NFLPA could claim to represent both players. As the designated bargaining unit for the players, the union has the duty of fair representation. A breach of the duty of fair representation occurs when a union’s conduct toward a member is arbitrary, discriminatory, or in bad faith. I am assuming that this is the lens through which the NFLPA is viewing their role.
However, DeMaurice Smith is a lawyer, and I am guessing that many at the NFLPA are lawyers. As such, their conduct should be governed by conflict rules consistent with Model Rule of Professional Conduct 1.7, which states, “… a lawyer shall not represent a client if the representation involves a conflict of interest. A concurrent conflict of interest exists if: (1) the representation of one client will be directly adverse to another client; or (2) there is a significant risk that the representation of one or more clients will be materially limited by the lawyer’s responsibilities to another client…” As this matter progresses, how could both players be assured that the union could aggressively pursue a course of action to seek justice for an aggrieved player, yet vigorously defend the interests of an accused player during an investigation, or a punished player through the appeals process? Even with the consent of both Martin and Incognito, I do not see how the NFLPA jumps over the hurdle in the exception provision of the Rule that permits representation if, “ the representation does not involve the assertion of a claim by one client against another client represented by the lawyer in the same litigation or other proceeding before a tribunal…”
One possible solution would be to have the NFLPA appoint an experienced union leader from another sport to represent the interest of either Martin or Incognito in the very limited scope of matters pertaining to or arising out of the events in this case. Don Fehr would seem to be the likely choice. This way, the NFLPA avoids any hint of bias and both Jonathan Martin and Richie Incognito are assured that they will receive the full scope of the rights and benefits they are entitled to under their Collective Bargaining Agreement.
Joseph Kohm, Jr.
Monday, November 11, 2013
Would You Join a College Players' Association?
The legal aftermath of Judge Wilken's certification order in O'Bannon v. NCAA takes a new twist with formation efforts for a college players' trade association. Here's my take for Sports Illustrated.
Sunday, November 10, 2013
Partial Certification in O'Bannon v. NCAA
I have a new article for SI.com on Judge Wilken partially certifying the class action lawsuit brought by Ed O'Bannon, Sam Keller and other former and current student-athletes. Short take: her order is great news for future and current student-athletes, not so great news for former ones.
Thursday, November 07, 2013
ASU 4th Annual Conference on Sports and Entertainment Law
I am looking forward to returning to speak at The Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law at Arizona State University for its 4th Annual Conference on Sports and Entertainment Law this Saturday, November 9th, 2013 from 9am – 4pm, followed by a reception for all attendees and speakers. The Conference will take place at Arizona State University Memorial Union, Arizona Ballroom 221 (2nd Floor), 1290 S. Normal Ave., Tempe, AZ, 85287. CLE credit is available for attorneys, including Ethics credit. The Keynote Presentation will be given by Bud Selig, the Commissioner for Major League Baseball.
Panel topics include:
· Gregg Goldman, 29th Drive
Its always a great conference, and looking forward to having fellow Sports Law Blog contributors joining me this year.
Register at this link.
Confronting Locker Room Bullying with Physical Violence
An interesting development in Incognito-gate yesterday, with stories that Miami Dolphins GM Jeff Ireland told Jonathan Martin's agent that Martin should punch his tormentor in the face.
One downside of punching someone in the head, of course, is that one has committed a tort: battery. Can a person use force to defend themselves from bullying? In my article Defense Against Outrage, I explore this very question. I ask whether, if the bully's conduct rises to the level of extreme or outrageous conduct, a person can use physical force in "self-defense" against the emotional damage bullying can do.
Some have argued that Richie Incognito's bullying, pervasive and offensive, would rise to the level of IIED. Would that have created a privilege to use physical violence in self-defense?